It is defined as the ratio of the photon to the total photon absorbed by the photochemical reaction. The symbol is ψ, Y. The integral quantum yield is the number of photons/photons of photons that are photochemically reacted. For photochemical reactions, ψ = amount of reactant consumption (or product production) / number of photons absorbed. The micro-component yield is φ = (d[x] / dt) / n. Where d[x]/dt is the variability of a measurable quantity and n is the number of photons absorbed per unit time (molar or Einstein). Bismuth can be used in photophysical processes or photochemical reactions.

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