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questions :Discuss the philosophy of St. Augustine's history
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[Member (365WT)]answers [Chinese ]Time :2019-04-29
Pure philosophy

In general, St. Augustine is not dedicated to pure philosophy, but when he does, he shows great talent. There are many people in history, and their purely speculative views have been influenced by the necessity of scripture, and Augustine has taken the lead in this long list of characters. However, this situation is not suitable for early Christian philosophers, such as for Origen. In Origen's writings, Christianity and Platonism coexist and do not penetrate each other. In contrast, the original idea of pure philosophy in Augustine's writings was stimulated by the fact that Platonism was inconsistent with Genesis in some respects.
In St. Augustine's writings, the eleventh volume of Confessions is the best purely philosophical work. Some ordinary versions of "Confessions" have only ten volumes, because the parts after ten volumes are boring; the reason why they are boring is precisely because this part is not a biography, but a good philosophy. The eleventh volume deals with the problem: If the creation of the world is like the first chapter of Genesis, as Augustine argued against the Manichaeism, then the creation of the world should happen as early as possible, so he imagined it. With an opponent, he began his argument.
In order to understand his answer, he must first recognize the creation of nothing in the Old Testament. It is a completely strange concept for Greek philosophy. When Plato talks about creation, he thinks of a primitive form given by God. Material; and Aristotle is also so. They say that God is not so much a creator as a designer or an architect. They think that material entities are forever, and are not created; only form It is out of God's will. Contrary to this opinion, St. Augustine, as all orthodox Christians must argue, argues that the world is not created from any material, but created from nothing..God created a physical entity, and he not only reorganized and arranged...
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The Greeks believe that the idea that it is impossible to create from nothing has been intermittently in the Christian era and led to the emergence of pantheism. Pantheism believes that God is indistinguishable from the world; everything in the world is part of God. The insights have been fully developed in Spinoza's writings and have attracted almost all mystics. In all centuries of Christianity, mystics have always had difficulty in upholding orthodoxy because they It is hard to believe that the world exists outside of God. But Augustine has not felt any difficulty at this point; because Genesis has made it very clear, this is enough for him..His insights on this issue have important implications for his time theory...
Why was the world not created earlier? Because there is no such thing as "earlier". Time was created at the same time as creation. God, in the sense of super time, is eternal; in God, there is no such thing as before and after, only the eternal present. The eternality of God is out of time; for God, all time is now. He does not precede the time he created himself, because it means that he exists in time. In fact, God is always standing outside the torrent of time. This led Augustine to write a very admirable theory of time relativity.
"What is time then?" he asked. "If no one asks me, I understand. If I want to explain to the person who asked me, then I don't understand." All kinds of difficulties made him confused. He said that what actually exists is neither the past nor the future; it is only now. It is only a moment, and time can only be measured when it is passing. However, it is true that there is time in the past and in the future. Therefore, we seem to be brought into contradiction. In order to avoid these contradictions, the only way for Augustine to find is that the past and the future can only be imagined as the present: the "past" must be equal to the recollection: the "future" is equal to the expectation Same, memories and expectations are both existing facts.He said that there are three kinds of time: "the present of the past, the present of the present, and the present of the future." "The present is the memory of the present; now the present is the vision; the present of the future is the expectation." The past, present and future times are just a rough statement...
He also understands that using this theory does not actually solve all the difficulties. He said: "My heart is eager to know this most complicated mystery." He prayed that God would guide him and assure God that his concern for this issue was not from boring curiosity. "Lord! I confess to you, I am still blind and ignorant of what time is." But the answer to his answer is that time is subjective: time exists in the spirit of expectation and memory. . Therefore, if there is no creation, there will be no time, so it is meaningless to talk about the time before creation.
I myself disagree with this theory of saying time as a spiritual product. However, it is clear that this is a very good theory and deserves serious consideration. I can go further and say that this theory is a huge improvement over any related theory seen in Greek philosophy. It is more comprehensive and clearer than Kant's subjective time theory—a theory that has been widely recognized by philosophers since Kant.
The theory that time is only one aspect of thinking is an extreme form of subjectivism. As we have seen, this subjectivism has grown and prospered since the times of Protgora and Socrates in ancient times. The emotional aspect of this theory is a concept of sinfulness, but this aspect is later than the occurrence of intelligence. St. Augustine proposed two subjectivisms, and subjectivism not only made him a Kant time theory. Pioneer; at the same time, he became the pioneer of Descartes' "I thought". Augustine said in "The slogan": "You know this person! Do you know that you exist? I know. Where did you come from?" I do not know.Do you think you are single or compound? I don't know. Do you think you are moving by yourself? I don't know. Do you know that you are thinking? I know." This passage not only includes Descartes' "I thoughts"; it also includes the answer of "I walk so I exist" in Kasangdi. Therefore, as a philosopher, Augustine should occupy a higher position. ...
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