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questions :History of gardening
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[Member (365WT)]answers [Chinese ]Time :2019-11-07
The origins of horticulture can be traced back to the early stages of agricultural development. According to archaeological excavation materials, brown dates, figs, olives, grapes and onions have been cultivated in the Stone Age. During the heyday of Egyptian civilization, horticultural production has also developed, such as bananas, lemons, pomegranates, cucumbers, lentils, garlic, lettuce, and rose. Fruit tree grafting and fruit storage have been mentioned in the agricultural works of ancient Rome. At that time, the original greenhouse covered with mica tablets was used for vegetable cultivation. In addition to planting various fruit trees such as apples, pears, figs, pomegranates, etc., the aristocratic manor also cultivates various ornamental flowers such as lilies, roses, violets, irises, and marigolds. Gardening declined during the Middle Ages.
During the Renaissance, gardening rose again in Italy and spread throughout Europe. After the discovery of the New World, horticultural crops such as corn, potato, tomato, sweet potato, pumpkin, kidney bean, pineapple, avocado, cashew, and pecan were widely introduced. Trade and transportation have further stimulated the development of horticulture.
There is no obvious division of labor between agronomy and horticulture in China's Xia and Shang dynasties. China's Zhou Dynasty gardens began to appear as an independent management department. At that time, the crops planted in the gardens had vegetables, fruits and economic forests. In the Warring States period, there were melons and peaches. The description of jujube, plum and other fruit trees. The Qin and Han horticulture industry has developed greatly. Due to the increase of East-West exchanges, some horticultural crops such as peaches and apricots have been transmitted to the West. At the same time, garlic, cucumber, grape, pomegranate and walnut have been introduced from abroad. Et al. "Han Shu" records that the local government planted green onions, alfalfa and other vegetables in the winter, indicating that greenhouse cultivation has been in China for a long time. In the Northern and Southern Dynasties, there were many inventions in the breeding and cultivation techniques of fruit trees..After the Tang and Song dynasties, horticulture, especially ornamental horticulture, developed rapidly, and many rare varieties such as peony, peony, plum and chrysanthemum appeared. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the sea was opened, and ginkgo, medlar, citrus and cabbage, radish, etc. were successively transmitted. Foreign countries have also introduced more horticultural crops from abroad. Over the past years, they have made great achievements in greenhouse cultivation, fruit tree breeding and cultivation techniques, cultivation of valuable flower varieties, and extensive exchanges with countries in horticulture...
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After the 20th century, horticultural production has increasingly developed into business development. Horticultural products, including fruit trees, vegetables and ornamental plants, have become more and more necessary for people to improve food nutrition, beautify and purify the environment. Grapes, citrus, bananas and apples in fruit trees. The proportion of cut flowers and bulbous flowers in beans, melons and flowers in vegetables, coconuts, pineapples, and vegetables has also increased in international trade. Due to the application of many modern scientific and technological achievements, horticultural production technology has advanced rapidly..For example, plant hormones provide a new means for the regulation of the reproduction and growth of horticultural crops. Tissue culture technology makes it possible to rapidly breed horticultural crops and carry out virus-free seedlings. The wide application of plastic film greatly facilitates the protection of various horticultural crops. The production of ground and the control of light treatment have opened up new avenues for the supply of vegetables and flowers for the anniversary. The invention of various fruit harvesters and collectors has made it possible for horticultural production to end manual operations very quickly. Genetic advances are making horticultural crops breeding. Work has improved to a new level, and modern horticulture has become an important area for comprehensive application of various scientific and technological achievements to promote production; at the same time, research on horticultural production techniques, in turn, on plant physiology,The development of genetics and other plays a powerful role in promoting,China's development of horticulture industry has the following favorable conditions: various natural conditions, suitable for the development of various horticultural crops; a large population, ample labor, and a tradition of intensive farming; horticultural development has been thousands of years old, with experience and skills in horticultural production And formed a number of key areas of horticulture development, such as Nanfeng, Wenzhou Tangerine, Caozhou (Heze) Peony, Turpan grapes and cantaloupe. In accordance with the principle of adapting to local conditions and proper concentration, various commodity horticultural production bases should be vigorously developed in the future to meet foreign exchange earning and domestic needs.
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