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questions :History of immunology
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[Visitor (111.8.*.*)]answers [Chinese ]Time :2020-04-18
Like other disciplines, immunology gradually occurs, develops, and matures with the development of society and the progress of science. The development of immunology can be divided into three periods: primitive, traditional and modern.
1. In the primitive immunology period, immunology originated in China. In the long-term clinical practice of treating smallpox, ancient Chinese physicians found that the smallpox patients and caregivers after rehabilitation or people who wore clothes contaminated with acne scabs no longer suffer from smallpox, so they boldly used the powder of smallpox scab The method of normal people's nostrils to prevent smallpox is the earliest original vaccine in the world. According to research, this kind of human pox vaccine has appeared during the Kaiyuan period of the Tang Dynasty (713-741 AD), and has been widely circulated in the folk by the 10th century and gradually spread abroad.
In about the 15th century, the human vaccinia method spread to the Middle East. The locals modified the nostril blowing method into the intradermal inoculation method, and the immune effect was more significant. In 1721, the wife of the British Ambassador to Turkey Mary Montagu introduced this vaccination method to the United Kingdom, and soon spread to Europe. However, although this empirical human vaccinia has a certain immune effect, it is not very reliable, and there is a risk of artificial infection, so it is not generally accepted by people.
By the end of the 18th century, E. Jenner, a rural doctor in England, was inspired by the phenomenon that milking women suffered from cowpox (a mild localized acne), but not smallpox. After a series of experiments, they successfully created it in 1798 Vaccinia vaccine, and publicly implement the vaccination method. This is the first successful vaccine in the world, and it has made an immortal contribution to the final victory of mankind against smallpox. But microbiology was not yet developed at the time, and people did not yet recognize the pathogens of smallpox and vaccinia, so this isolated success has not been theoretically sublimated. For the next century, immunology has remained in this primitive state of experience.
2. During the period of traditional immunology in the late 19th century, the development of microbiology laid the foundation for the formation of immunology. In 1880, French microbiologist L. Pasteur accidentally discovered that inoculation of outdated cultures of chicken cholerae can protect chickens from infection by toxic strains In turn, he successfully created attenuated Bacillus anthracis vaccine and rabies vaccine, and began to study the immune mechanism. In 1883, the Russian zoologist E. Metchnikoff discovered the phagocytosis of white blood cells and proposed the theory of cellular immunity. In 1890, German physician E. von Behring and Japanese scholar Kitari discovered diphtheria antitoxins. In 1894, Belgian serologist J. Bordet discovered complement. This finding supports the theory of humoral immunity. The two schools of thought once argued until the early 20th century. British physician A .Wright discovered the conditioner, German scholar P.Ehrlich proposed the theory of side chains to unify the two theories. In 1901, the term "immunology" first appeared in "IndexMedicus", and in 1916, "JournalofImmunology" was first published. As a discipline, immunology was only officially released Recognized...
At the same time, the serology of jujube studies to study the response of antigens has gradually formed and developed. Medical Education _ Education Network _ Collect and organize H. Durham and others discovered the agglutination reaction in 1896, R. Kraus discovered the precipitation reaction in 1897, K. Landsteiner discovered the human ABO blood type in 1900, and J. Bordet discovered the complement binding reaction. These experiments are gradually applied in clinical examination. In the following decades, serological research represented the mainstream of immunology development.
3. After the mid-20th century in the modern immunology period, many new discoveries in immunology frequently challenged traditional immunology concepts. In 1945, R. Owen discovered that the different blood types of two identical calves can tolerate each other. In 1948, C. Snell discovered histocompatibility antigens. In 1953, R. Billingham et al. Successfully conducted an artificial tolerance test. In 1956, Witebsky et al. Established an animal model of autoimmune disease. These immunobiological phenomena force people to jump out of the anti-infection circle and even look at immunology outside the medical field.
So a new theory of immunology, jujube cloning selection theory, was proposed by Australian scholar F. Burnet in 1958. The doctrine believes that there are clones of immune cells that recognize various antigens in the body; the antigen selects the corresponding clone weights through cell receptors and activates and proliferates them into antibody-producing cells and immune memory cells; immune cells that come into contact with antigens during embryonic period It can be destroyed or inhibited and is called a taboo cell line; some immune cells can react with self antigens due to mutations. Although this theory is not perfect, it explains most of the immune phenomenon, which is accepted by most scholars and proved by later experiments. It can be said to be an epoch-making immunology theory.
Afterwards, cellular immunity re-emerged with a brand new look. In 1956, B.Glick discovered the role of the supraluminal capsule. In 1961, J. Miller discovered the function of the thymus. In 1966, H. Claman et al. Distinguished B cells from T cells and discovered their immune synergy. Different subpopulations of T cells and their identification methods were successively discovered, as well as the mechanism of naive interaction between immune cells and the limitation of major histocompatibility complexes.
At the same time, humoral immunity continues to develop in depth. Since it was confirmed that the antibody was serum gamma globulin in the early 1940s, R. Porter obtained a fragment of the antibody by proteolysis in 1950, and G. Edelman obtained the polypeptide chain of the antibody by chemical fragmentation, which together proved the molecular structure of the antibody; 60 The classification and names of immunoglobulins were unified in 1960s; in 1957, G. Kǒhler and C. Milstein et al. Prepared monoclonal antibodies using B-cell hybridoma technology; in 1978, S. Tonegawa discovered the gene rearrangement of immunoglobulins.
Since the 1980s, numerous cytokines have been discovered. The study of their receptors, genes and their biological activities has promoted the vigorous development of molecular immunology. Some people call it "the period of molecular immunology." Pushing immunology research to a new level.
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