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[Visitor (112.21.*.*)]answers [Chinese ]Time :2021-11-17
The American War of Independence, or American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), was a war between the British Empire and its 13 colonies in North America, as well as several other European powers.

The war began primarily against British economic policy, but was later fought by France, Spain and the Netherlands, which extended far beyond British North America. At the same time, many Indians fought for both sides.
During the war, Britain was able to use their naval superiority to occupy the colonial coastal cities, but they were puzzled as to how to control the countryside. With the victory of the French Navy in the city of Kishabik led to the surrender of British troops at the Battle of Yorktown in 1781. The Treaty of Paris, established in 1783, recognized the independence of the United States, as many colonists fled the thirteen colonies and settled in the north, in preparation for the establishment of Canada in the future.
In 1607, the British came to the Atlantic coast of North America and began to establish the first colony, Virginia (Jamestown, the first British colonial stronghold in North America). By the 1830s, the British had established 13 colonies along the Atlantic coast of North America. During this period, large numbers of immigrants moved to North America, most of them British, many from other European countries, and many slaves trafficked from Africa. They have made important contributions to the development of North America.
At that time, the capitalist economy of the British North American colonies developed rapidly and became the mainstream of economic development. At the same time, there are many backward economic components. The colonial model of rule was established in accordance with the British regime, and each colony had its own governor and parliament. The Governor, who ruled the colonies on behalf of the British, had executive, economic and military powers to veto bills passed by Parliament.
After more than one hundred years of development, the British North American colonies have become increasingly close economic exchanges, initially forming a unified domestic market. At the same time, in the long-term exchange and integration process, English has become a common language from the colonies, and gradually produced a common culture. On this basis, the American nation began to form. The national consciousness gradually awakened. In the first half of the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas spread in the British North American colonies, and some outstanding thinkers, such as Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, emerged. The British North American colonies are becoming more and more national and democratic.
In the mid-18th century, the British Colonies of North America developed rapidly, the north was well-developed, shipbuilding was one of the major industrial sectors, and even the British mainland had many people to buy ships built here; Central is rich in grain, wheat and corn are exported to the European market; The southern plantation economy prevailed, with black slaves being the main labor force on the plantations, growing cash crops such as tobacco and cotton in addition to rice. Many products produced in North America can even compete with British products in the international market. During the Seven Years' War of 1756-1763, Britain fought a long war with France for control of the North American colonies.Although Britain defeated France and took control of much of North America, it was in financial trouble as a result of the long war. As a result, the British government continued to raise taxes on the Colonies of North America and imposed high-handed policies, brutally crushing and brutally exploiting the colonies, and the British wanted North America to always be its source of raw materials and commodity markets, trying to suppress the colonial economy and scrape more wealth from the colonies. The colonial people were dissatisfied with The British stripping and bondage, and the conflict between the two sides became increasingly acute, which eventually led to the outbreak of war...
American War of Independence American War of Independence

The Revolutionary War of Independence in North America (1775-1783), in which 13 colonies of British North America resisted British rule and fought for national independence. Also known as the American Revolutionary War or the American Revolution.

In the middle of the 18th century, with the development of the North American colony economy and the enhancement of american national consciousness, the conflict between the British and the North American colonies intensified day by day. Especially after the seven-year war, in order to make up for the loss of the war, Britain intensified the stripping and oppression of the colonial people, so that the colonial struggle against Britain from economic and political struggle to armed struggle.

In March 1770, the Boston massacre took place.

In 1773, the tea tax law was passed, causing the Boston tea-dumping incident, which was also the trigger for the war.
In 1774, five intolerable decrees (such as the closure of Boston Harbor, the addition of British troops, the abolition of Massachusetts's autonomy, and the establishment of British jurisdiction over the colonies) intensified their political and military control and repression of the colonies.

In 1772-1774, the colonies generally established the Communications Commission to lead the anti-British struggle.

From September 5 to October 1774, the North American colonies held a joint colonial conference in Philadelphia, known as the First Continental Congress. In georgia's absence, 55 delegates from 12 other colonies attended the meeting (mostly wealthy businessmen, bankers, plantation slave owners, and Georgia was blocked by the Governor).
The Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Rights, which called on the British Government to lift economic restrictions on the colonies and five high-pressure decrees; Reiterates that no taxes may be levied on colonies without the consent of the colonial people, and calls for their autonomy and the withdrawal of British troops. If Britain does not accept these demands, the North American colonies will boycott British goods from December 1st, while banning the export of any goods to britain.

The Continental Congress also presented the Peace Petition to the King, stating that the colonies remained "loyal" to the King. After the meeting, the colonies began to prepare for the uprising, training militias and stockpiing arms. Although the continental conference did not raise the issue of independence, it was an important step in the formation of the colonial regime.
On April 18, 1775, in Lexington and Concord, near Boston, colonial patriots opened fire on the War of Independence.

On April 19, 1775, British troops in Boston were ordered to go to Concord to search for the arms of the colonial militia, and on their way back and forth they were ambushed by the militia near Lexington, losing 286 people. The Battle of Lexington kicked off the war.

On May 10, 1775, representatives of the North American colonies held the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia.

On June 14, 1775, it was decided to establish the Army, and the following day George Washington was appointed Commander-in-Chief.
In May 1776, the Third Continental Conference was held in Philadelphia, which strengthened the resolve of war and independence, and on July 4th the Continental Conference issued a declaration of independence, which denounced the british king's tyranny over the colonies, declared that all men were created equal, that all men were created equal, that all men had the right to live, be free and pursue happiness, and that 13 colonies had been declared independent from Britain and that the United States of America had been born!
On November 19, 1777, the Continental Congress adopted the Confederate Regulations. The regulation was the first official document of the North American colonies to establish a unified government in 13 new states. Under the Constitution, the central power of the United States was small in the past, and the states retained a great deal of independence; The states have the power to tax, conscript and issue paper money, and the Federal Congress has only the power to declare war and make peace, to send foreign envoys, to control the postal service, and to adjust state relations.

As a result, the United States is a loose confederacy of 13 independent city-states.

But because some states were reluctant to hand over control to a national government, the regulation was not finally ratified and entered into force by a full 13 states until 1781.
On March 1, 1781, with the formal approval of Maryland, the Confederate Regulations came into force.

In February 1778, France and the United States signed a treaty of military alliance, France officially recognized the United States. France, Spain and the Netherlands went to war. At the beginning of the War of Independence, the two sides were at a great strength, and the war lasted for eight years.

In 1781, the British forces of North America retreated to yorktown on the coast of the South China Sea. Washington asked the French navy to cut off the British sea escape route, while commanding the U.S.-French coalition to close the town of York from land. Under heavy attack from the American and French forces, the British men who had no way to go finally surrendered.

On September 3, 1783, Britain and the United States signed the Treaty of Paris between the United States and Britain.
At the beginning of the war, there was a great disparity of power between the two sides. Britain was the most powerful colonial empire at that time, the industry developed, the navy is in the forefront of the world; About 30,000 British troops in North America, well-equipped, well-trained, and based on Canada; However, the army is far from home, not aware of the local situation, human and material resources to supplement the difficulties; There are differences within the ruling group on the guidance of war, and no unified command has been formed.The population of the North American colonies is only 3 million, of which about 500,000 are pro-British "loyalists"; The regular army has just been formed and is understaffed, mainly supplemented by non-prolific militias and short-term volunteers, poorly equipped and under-trained; The colonial localism was serious and the leadership of the continental conference was weak; But it was a just war, fighting for independence and freedom, supported by revolutionary people and international progressive forces, and able to take advantage of the inherent contradictions between Britain and France, the West, the Netherlands and other countries to fight for foreign aid...
The seven-year war between Britain and France over maritime hegemony and the plundering of colonies ended in Victory for Britain. Britain took over Canada in North America, took control of New France east of the Mississippi River, tightened its overall control over the North American colonies, declared the Appalachian Mountains west of the royal industry, and banned the colonists from touching them; And the imposition of heavy taxes, strict anti-smuggling, restrictions on economic activities, seriously damaged the economic interests of the colonial people at all levels.

Since Virginia established its parliament in 1619, the colonies have formed parliaments to rival Britain, and in 1765 nine colonies staged a protest against stamp duty, sparking a wave of revolt.
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