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[Visitor (183.193.*.*)]answers [Chinese ]Time :2021-12-04
C.R. Darwin (1809.2.12-1882.4.19), British biologist and founder of the theory of biological evolution. As a naturalist, he took part in a five-year scientific expedition to the world sent by Britain. A great deal of observation and collection have been made in animals, plants and geology, and the concept of biological evolution has been formed through comprehensive discussion. In 1859, the Journal of the Origin of Species was published, which shocked the academic world at the time.
The book uses a lot of information to prove that all living things are not created by God, but in genetics, mutation, survival struggle and natural selection, from simple to complex, from low to higher, continuous development and change, put forward the theory of biological evolution, thus destroying the idealistic "theology" and "species invariance". Engels lists "evolution" as one of the three major discoveries of the 19th century natural science (the other two are cytology, the law of energy conservation and transformation).

His natural and sexual choices are consistent and universal theories in the current life science. In addition to biology, his theory is important in anthropology, psychology, and philosophy.

Genius is born
Charles Robert Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin was born in England on February 12, 1809. Darwin's grandfather foreshadowed evolution, but his reputation was not open to his beliefs. His grandfather and father were both local doctors, and the family hoped that he would inherit his ancestry in the future.

The way to school

He was sent to the University of Edinburgh by his father in 1825 at the age of 16 to study medicine.
Because Darwin had no intention of studying medicine, after entering the Agricultural College, he still frequented the wild to collect specimens of plants and animals and developed a keen interest in natural history. Father thought he was "free-flowing" and "unprotected", and in 1828 he was sent to Cambridge University to study theology in the hope that he would become a "noble priest" in the future, so that he could continue his love of natural science without humiliating his family, but Darwin's interest in natural history became stronger and he gave up theology altogether. While at Cambridge, Darwin met J. Henslow, then a famous botanist, and Sikkiwick, a famous geologist, and received scientific training in botany and geology.
marital status

Darwin was also cautious about marriage. He took a piece of paper, a line in the middle, the benefits of marriage on one side, and the benefits of being single on the other. Darwin lamented that it was too lonely not to get married, and then wrote three "marriages" in a row - proof that he had to get married.

Darwin was clearly a gentle man who liked to chat with women, and he was looking for a traditional good wife and mother. He is not without choice. The three daughters of a friend's family, each erudite and intelligent, were able to debate philosophy and science with him, and could accommodate his skepticism.
He found Emma Wedgwood, a cousin he had known since childhood. Emma is a year older than Darwin, and her father is the younger brother of Darwin's mother. Emma agreed to Darwin's proposal - a man who listened to women nagging, and girls seemed to be his ideal husband. Although Emma feared that she would break up with her husband forever after death, she would go to heaven, and her husband, who did not worship God, did not know where to go, she simply asked Darwin to remain open to faith. Two and a half months later, they got married.
The death of her daughter Anne failed to destroy Darwin's marriage. In Emma's time, the death of her daughter Anne could easily be seen as punishment for her "immoral" behaviour, such as marrying a man who did not believe in God. But Emma never thought so. Both of them loved Anne dearly. Seeing Anne stop breathing, Darwin himself fell ill in bed. He said to Emma: We should cherish each other more. Emma replied: You must remember that you will always be my most precious treasure. Every Sunday, he walks with Emma and the children to church. His wife took her children to church, but Darwin walked alone in town.
Emma may not agree with natural selection (not God's creation) in The Origin of Species, and perhaps she may not be interested. But that's why Emma was able to give her first reaction to the manuscript of The Origin of Species on behalf of the uneducated religious masses of the time. Emma read the manuscript carefully, corrected the spelling, corrected the punctuation, and suggested that Darwin write some passages that were easily stimulating to believers and churches, and that the arguments be clearer.
If there were more reasons not to marry in the first column, if Darwin remained single and continued to live among London's intellectuals, he would probably have written a more intense book had it not been for Emma's marriage. Because of Emma's involvement, the debate over the ideas in the book can be somewhat free from emotional bondage and focused on facts and logic.
The first edition of The Origin of Species was published in 1859. Twelve years later, Darwin published The Origin of Man. No matter how controversial the origin of apes, the book The Origin of Man clearly had no effect on the darwinian couple's feelings. Shortly after the book was published, the oldest girl they survived, Eti, married. Darwin told her: I have a happy life, thanks to your mother - you should follow the example of your mother, your husband will love you as much as I love your mother.
Darwin died fourteen years before Emma. There is a legend that he converted to faith before his death. Perhaps, in order to comfort Emma's heaven must not meet the sorrow? There's no such thing. No such records were found in Emma's diary. Darwin to death was a scientist who stood his ground.

Create evolution
After graduating from Cambridge University in 1831, his teacher Henslow recommended him as a naturalist to take part in a scientific expedition around the world by the British Navy's Ussaturer Hound on December 27 of that year. First on the east coast of South America, Brazil, Argentina and other places and the west coast and adjacent islands, then across the Pacific Ocean to Oceania, then across the Indian Ocean to South Africa, and then around Cape of Good Hope through the Atlantic Ocean back to Brazil, and finally on October 2, 1836 returned to The United Kingdom. He took several birds with him as he traveled the world with the Beagle, and in order to feed them, he planted a grass called a grass reed in the cabin. The cabin was dark, only the windows were shining into the sun, and Darwin noticed that the seedlings of the grass were bent and growing in the direction of the windows.But in later decades, Darwin was busy creating the theory of evolution, and it was not until his later years that he began a series of experimental studies on the issue of lightness, summarizing the results in his 1880 book, The Power of Plants. Darwin did these experiments with the seeds of grass. When the seeds of grass germinate, the germ outside is covered with a layer of germ, germ germ germ first broke out of the earth, to protect the germ from damage when unearthed. Darwin discovered that germ palate was the key to light. If seeds are planted in the dark, their germs will grow vertically upward. If the sun shines on the seedlings from one side, the germ crucible bends in the direction of the sun.If the tip of the germ crucible is cut off or covered with opaque things, although light can also shine on the germ, the germ crucible is no longer bent toward the light. If the germ crucible is covered with something transparent, the germ crucible bends toward the light, and, that is, the germ moth is buried in impermeable black sand with only the tip, and the buried germ crucible is still bent toward the light. Darwin speculated that a signal substance secreted at the tip of the germ crucible, which is sent down to the bending part, caused the germ to bend toward light...
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The voyage changed Darwin's life. Back in England, he was busy studying, aspiring to be a serious scientist promoting evolution. In 1838, he stumbled upon T. Malthus's Theory of Population, and was inspired to confirm that he was developing an important idea: that the world was not created in a week, that the earth was much older than the Bible says, that all plants and animals had changed, and that all plants and animals were changing, and that, as far as humans were, it might have been made from some primitive animal, In other words, the story of Adam and Eve is a myth.Darwin realized the significance of the struggle for survival in biological life, and realized that natural conditions are the "selectors" necessary for biological evolution...
However, he is extremely cautious about publishing the findings. In 1842, he began to write an outline, which he expanded to several articles. In 1858, under the pressure of the creative epiphany of the young naturalist R. Wallace, and at the instigation of his friends, Darwin decided to submit Wallace's article and part of his own writings to the Professional Council. In 1859, the book "The Origin of Species" came out, and the first edition of 1250 copies sold out on the same day. Darwin later spent two decades collecting information to enrich his species' theories of evolution through natural selection and to explain its consequences and significance.
As a man who did not seek fame but was creative, Darwin avoided controversy over his theory. Darwin wrote several other books for scientists and psychologists when religious zealots attacked evolution as contrary to the creationist theory of the Bible. The book Origin and Sexual Selection of Humans reports evidence of human evolution from lower life forms, evidence of similarities in animal and human psychological processes, and evidence of natural selection during evolution.

The great man died

On April 19, 1882, the great scientist died of illness, and his body was buried next to Newton's tomb as a tribute to the scientist.
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