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questions :The process of formation of classical drama
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[Visitor (112.21.*.*)]answers [Chinese ]Time :2022-01-18
Theoretical discussions on classical theater can be traced back to ancient Roman times. However, the establishment of classical theory of theater was in France in the 1630s and 1670s. In 1636, the Parisian theater world was controversial over the performance of P. Corneille's tragedy "Cid". Prime Minister Richelieu instructed the Académie française to write an essay criticizing the Cid.In 1638, the "Opinion of the Académie de France on the Cid", written by one of the founders of the Académie, Sha polo (1595-1674), was officially published. The article accuses Gao Naiyi of violating the "entertainment" role of drama "based on reason", not always putting "meeting the requirements of honor" in the first place, failing to strictly abide by the "Trinity", etc. This opinion was the first systematic declaration of the theoretical claims of classical drama.In 1674, another member of the Académie française, Bovareau, published a poetic treatise, The Art of Poetry, which focused on the third chapter of the theory of drama, bringing together all the theatrical views that conformed to the principles of classicism since Aristotle and Horace and the creative experience of French classical playwrights. This treatise on drama can be said to be a summary of classical theory of drama...
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French classical theatre reached the highest level in Europe in the 17th century and produced three accomplished dramatists: P. Gownei, J. Racine and Molière Gowère were the founders and representative writers of French classical tragedy. Other important plays include Horace (1640) and Sina (1640). Most of the scripts choose themes from history, and the protagonists are either kings or heroes of aristocratic origin, depicting the conflict between personal feelings and national obligations, and expressing the theme of the supremacy of reason. In terms of art form, he did not strictly abide by the laws formulated by theorists and made a breakthrough in the "Trinity Law".By the 1650s, Racine had replaced Corneille's leadership in the theater world, and important plays such as Andromak (1667) and Huaidra (1677) were noteds. His tragedies have a different style from Gowai, focusing on the theme of exposing the darkness and evil of the feudal ruling class, the tragic protagonist has the virtues and shortcomings of ordinary people, with special emphasis on the meticulous analysis of the psychology of the characters, and the concise concentration of the art form. Molière is a representative writer of French classical comedy, his works have distinct anti-feudal and anti-ecclesiastical characteristics, and the art form has the advantages of rigorous classical theatrical structure and clear conflict, but also does not stick to the laws of classicism.Important works include The Hypocrite (1664-1669), Miserly Ghost (a translation of Miserly Man, 1668), Noble Fan (1670) and Skapan's Trick (1671). The plays of Corneille, Racine and Molière all had a certain democratic idea, but none of them escaped the pleasures of the court. The flourishing of classical theatrical creation promoted the development of the classical performing arts. There were two factions at that time: the Racines and the Molières. The famous actors of the Racine school were Mendori (1594-1651) and Ferrolidor (1608-1671), and their performances were exquisite. The famous actors of the Molière school were Molière and his student Baron (1653-1729), performing in pursuit of nature. The characteristics of classical stage art are: simple and abstract sets, gorgeous and beautiful costumes, etc.After France entered the 18th century, in the early days, classicism still dominated the field of theater, and The Enlightenment dramatists both fought against it and used its form to serve themselves. By the middle period, with the development of the Enlightenment, classical drama was in decline...
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