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questions :History writing method
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[Visitor (183.193.*.*)]answers [Chinese ]Time :2021-12-04
The way of historical writing can be divided into two categories, fiction refers to historical novels, as far as non-fiction, whether it is simply telling history, or extended discussion, as long as the truth is followed basically belong to this category.
As a half-hanger author who volunteers for life, my thoughts on historical fiction are very simple, literally, first history and then fiction, historical facts (neutral pure historical novels) or historical sense (overhead historical novels) is the basis, but the basis is not all, the post-fiction is not light fiction, just retelling history is the most boring thing, for a novelist. Ancient painting dragon's eye, and can be called the finishing touch of fiction, is the driving force of historical novel writing and charm.
Writing historical novels, since we have to draw from historical materials, we have the honor to be born in a country that attaches importance to history and has a long history, not to mention that the historical records of this country are always all kinds of desire to rest, meaning unknown, which is a blessing for the writer of the novel. The official compilation of "Twenty-Four History" since needless to say, the past generations of writers stand up for a variety of essays, notes, etc. are also valuable material for historical novel writing, of course, this kind of book collection is quite difficult, if the ancient text is not well estimated is also a hemp claw (dialect, meaning no way to start), but fortunately there are other options.
Recently, the various masters of the Republic of China are more popular, although some of their views of dissenters also have, but basically no one doubts their merit, two days ago, I bought the "Pre-Qin History" "Qin Han History", and then bought "The History of the Five Generations of the Tang Dynasty" book, these three books are Written by Mr. Lu Si-Ying, in Mr. Lu Si-Veng's "History of the Broken Generations" series, I also miss a "Wei Jin North-South Dynasty History", Mr. Lu Si-Veng's writing style is relatively old, the amount of citations is also very rich, basically can be regarded as raw material, and now repair the "" Yi Zhongtian's Chinese History of Yi Zhongtian Yi's famous base is basically from Mr. Lu Siying.

(1) The basic foothold and the orientation of historical thesis writing
  In the grand team of history scientists, middle school history teacher is an important aspect of the army, in the vast field of history science, the theory and practice of middle school history teaching is an important branch. The business characteristics of middle school history teachers determine that in writing history teaching papers, in addition to the commonalities of general history papers, but also must also have their own characteristics, which is the first thing to focus on how to teach history this course, improve the quality of teaching, so that students in the process of learning scientific historical knowledge, improve ideological and political level, establish a scientific world view, revolutionary outlook on life. In addition to teaching, it is also necessary for history teachers to arrange appropriate time and energy to write history teaching papers.The content orientation and main types of historical papers should be well considered. First of all, it should be affirmed that the majority of middle school history teachers can and have written a lot of historical papers on various subjects and content, with professional researchers, college teachers have also contributed to the history of science. At the same time, it should be seen that through a large number of teaching practices over a long period of time, middle school history teachers have accumulated a very rich classroom teaching experience, so that the teaching experience to sum up and improve the formation of various types of historical teaching papers around history teaching, is the advantage, the best, but this is likely to be other history researchers are relatively unfamiliar or not.While we humbly study and study the writings of university teachers and professional researchers, we should also see our unique advantages in writing historical education and teaching papers, in the overall construction of historical science, in this regard, we are responsible for a kind of "responsible", "whoever I am"...
  (2) Teaching summary is the main content of history teachers writing historical papers
  Around the main line of history education and history teaching to write history papers, our middle school history teachers have unique conditions. This is the main focus. At the same time to see some realistic conditions, but also make us focus on rewriting this kind of history teaching papers, only more in line with reality, do more with less, easy to produce results. Writing this kind of history teaching paper, specifically can be "teaching summary" as the basis, as a prototype, which can more effectively serve to improve teaching, history teaching papers are more targeted, avoid "teaching", "paper" two skins, in the busy teaching and class teacher and other work, because of writing papers and take too much energy.In this way, writing papers is not an additional burden, but a broad part of history teaching, closely linked with teaching, mutual promotion, more easily arouse the interest of writers, enhance the confidence to write good historical papers. All from the actual start, in the county, township and below secondary schools, some teachers are non-historical professional graduation, some teachers to the overall situation as a priority, obey the needs of the work, overcome difficulties, hard work, both several subjects; Some teachers are forced to teachers, curriculum situation and "change" to teach non - learning. Coupled with the relative lack of reference materials, borrowing, communication is not easy, and so on.After a sober look at these facts, we feel that it would be unrealistic to encourage teachers to write general historical papers in general and "try to achieve the level of publication". More realistic is: based on the teaching summary, write rooted in this fertile soil of teaching summary type short small lean strong historical papers, they can say things, use effectively, and then sum up, review improved, re-booked. It is not only the achievement of the history teaching paper of teachers, but also the achievement of county ( district) culture and education. It can be used as a teaching reference and as a basis for evaluation...
  Writing a history teaching paper on the basis of teaching summary does not mean that teaching summary is a thesis. The difference and connection between teaching summary and thesis should be discussed. What are the types of historical papers? It is difficult to define mechanically; How do all kinds of historical papers divide up? There is no way to rigidly divide, in fact, must be crisscrossed, linked to each other. In order to set the question, write the hand convenient, the subject ideas have to follow, can be roughly divided into the following: (1) the implementation of ideological education;
  Of course, there are other types, such as: teaching materials, teaching instruction, observation of the summary of teaching review and so on. The purpose and focus of our history teaching papers is obviously tilted towards history teaching, and all kinds of historical papers are inevitably intersecting and integrating. If (3) is of a comprehensive nature (1) and (2), (5) (6) constitutes more of the main components of (4);
  As we all know, objective history itself is a complex organic link of the whole, its various parts, all sides, this can not be separated from other parts, other sides of the understanding to master; Only in the discussion, research, because of the different focus, had to highlight what, about what, so the performance of different types of historical papers and content. From the writer, we should still strive to master the whole history, in order to deeply understand the part to be written from the overall connection, in order to accurately grasp the historical development in the long river you want to cut off the various stages. To this end, the next some hard work, hard work is necessary, on this basis can be widely selected, thick thin hair, shallow, by Bo return about.For example, to write a historical paper on the topic of "Taiping Heavenly Kingdom", from three different topics, there can be three different paper types and writing style...
  (1) If from the strengthening of teachers' further education, improve the level of business, write a certain academic quality of historical papers, should be written to the Taiping Heavenly Uprising broke out in the profound background of the times; From the Christian God teachings through Hong Xiu full processing transformation and localization, has become different from the traditional peasant uprising of the new type of spiritual weapon to mobilize the masses; Taiping Heavenly Kingdom with the momentum of thunder, destruction and decay, all the way to the allure, will be Nanjing, shocked the Qing Dynasty rule, resist Western aggression, foreshadowing the anti-imperialist anti-sealing nature of the semi-colonial people's revolution is coming; As for the problem of inner circles in the leadership group of heaven, it should be pointed out that it is not only a entanglement of interpersonal relationships, but also a profound analysis of the peasant class in essence does not represent advanced productive forces,In the absence of advanced class leadership, we can only mess up the old society, can not build a new society, after a number of victories, some "reform", either by the old feudal forces to suppress, or their own transformation into a new feudal dynasty,In particular, it should be clarified that, in the overall nature, although the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom is still an old-style simple peasant uprising, but the "Tian Dynasty Land Mu System" has highlighted the strong desire of the vast number of farmers to abolish feudal land ownership, showing the great attempt to solve the peasant land problem, foreshadowing the bourgeois democratic revolution. A new kind of struggle is coming...
  (2) If the main purpose of the history paper is to discuss how to teach students basic historical knowledge, to examine the degree of students' understanding and consolidation, it should focus on the key events, characters, places, eras of taiping, how to speak clearly, accurately and understandably; How to make students consolidate their memories on the basis of understanding and understand them better on the basis of memory; And develop and train students to analyze problem-solving skills. Gradually enable students to achieve a conscious and dynamic grasp of historical learning.
  (3) If the historical paper focuses on how to rely on Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, a magnificent, special rich heroic fighting spirit of the great revolutionary performance of the narrative to carry out ideological and political education for students, it should focus on summing up in teaching how to emphasize the people are the creators of history, peasant uprising is the real driving force to promote the development of feudal society history; Summarize the experience and effect of vivid and infectious presentation (reading, presentation). In order to increase the intensity of ideological education and the historical scene, we should also summarize the use of revolutionary literature, such as Taiping Heavenly Kingdom's "Heaven will be the master of life", "the same heart and the same courage to kill demons" and other words, Chen Yucheng, Shi Dakai and others when the heroic sacrifice of words, gas festival...
  Although the history teaching thesis and teaching summary are closely related, there are still differences after all. Teaching task, is in accordance with the requirements of the syllabus, according to the content of the text, complete and comprehensive to the students, the various parts can not be too light and heavy, not too detailed. The summary of the teaching process is also naturally restricted, basically need to be a comprehensive summary. The paper is different, in addition to the comprehensive summary works, you can choose a specific link, chapter, paragraph, select a certain side of the whole teaching process, to study, summarize, form a paper. In other words, the paper has more flexibility, selectivity, flexibility, and can be discussed more deeply and widely than the summary.It can be argued that the thesis is an optimization process of knowledge on the basis of summary. The paper comes from the summary, the paper is higher than the summary. This is mainly manifested in the following three aspects:..
  (1) In rational cognition, that is, in theoretical analysis, the thesis is better than the summary. Is teaching a lesson or a chapter more successful or with many disadvantages? Not only from the practical point of view to sum up and improve, "next lecture attention"; And to analyze its success or failure of the reasons and conditions: historical mastery is accurate, pure? Is the theoretical understanding correct and profound? Is the Teaching Method Scientific and Proper? The individual fragmented perceptual cognition is raised to the rational understanding of the complete system, which has universal significance and is used to guide the general.
  (2) In the object range, that is, on what content to discuss, the paper more summary has crossed or expanded. Summary, generally only to this chapter or this teaching stage as the object, the paper can be compared before and after, left and right link, so that historical issues are further clarified, thus increasing the breadth of knowledge and scientific depth than the teaching summary. For example, the three revolutionary climaxes in the modern history of Taiping Heaven, Yihe Andiah and Xinhai Revolution in China can be analyzed comparatively from the social background, mass mobilization, struggle strategy and historical significance, and discuss the mechanism and law of the development from the old peasant uprising to the bourgeois democratic revolution.For example, it is available to the British bourgeois revolution, the North American War of Independence, the French Revolution, and to analyze their different conditions, common nature and their respective historical effects. For example, the Franco-German Revolution of 1848, the British Constitutional x Movement, the birth of the Communist Manifesto and so on scattered in different chapters and classes of the "1848 event" summary discussion, look at the essential connection, see mutual promotion, but also how teachers have been separately described, and in the review and summary of how from the contact development to understand the complexity and unity of history. That is to say, the thesis can and should not be bound by the framework of teaching summary, how much escape from the scope of teaching summary.Of course, the paper can also be more contractionary than the summary, can be more concentrated, refined, in- depth effective...
  (3) In terms of social effects, that is, in the impact of the works written, the paper should contribute more than summary. Summary, from the personal summary, teaching and research group review summary until the inter-school excellent class observation summary, most of the situation is on the course, on the teacher, very practical and very effective, but the limitations are also very obvious, with class, school, regional characteristics, reflecting the corresponding level. The paper is oriented to the society, published in the journal self-talking, that is, in the county, district after review, selected into a book collection, can also become "social" as the object of the literature. These non-priced, non-sale of internal reference articles, can not be taken lightly, they can be removed from the "publishing difficulties" of various obstacles to play an effective.Many "oil prints" of educational and teaching materials, by the major libraries cherish, collect, pay for the collection. The history papers written by middle school history teachers provide reference for communication and contribute to social reading, which not only promotes the development and improvement of history teaching, but also contributes to the overall construction of historical science...
  (3) Raise the teaching summary to the specification level of the historical teaching paper

From summing up the "transition" to or raising to the thesis, it is difficult to have a uniform operating procedure or general mode. Teachers' own quality, characteristics, interests, the broadness, depth and difficulty of the topic are all important factors. Generally speaking, the emergence of historical papers, there are 'themes - outlines - articles" three steps or stages. Subject, that is: What to write in this article. The selection of themes is often influenced or constrained by three aspects.

(1) Objective needs
  That is, the usefulness of writing this question. Zhang Xuecheng said: "The key to spoken is to have something." "Something" not only refers to the content is full, not empty, but also refers to the objective need to write things have social benefits.

(2) Subjective ability

That is, the author has written into this article's basic knowledge and a certain depth, breadth of analysis and understanding, "the mind has a number." Zhang Xuecheng said: "The reason why the voice is xiao qixin," that is, to speak, for the text must also inevitably reflect the author's views and insights.

(3) Sources of historical papers
  Including the existing and accessible literature reference. Writing historical papers can not be written by "understanding" and "inspiration" alone, and true and reliable written materials are essential, including historical materials and historical theory, only under their auxiliary wings can the historical teaching papers rooted in teaching practice reach a better level. Determine the theme, the topic, that is, according to the conception of the subject content to produce an outline - writing outline. The outline is based on the objective thing itself, and is the hierarchical, profound and orderly text expression of the content written. Scientific and reasonable outline, can give high-quality writing with useful regulation and full and proper play.In fact, before the outline of historical papers, the outline of classroom teaching and summary outline of teaching has actually been written. Classroom teaching outline, it is the outline of the content of teaching materials, and textbook chapter paragraphs, closely follow. According to the student situation, teachers often make necessary changes and adjustments to the hierarchical arrangement of the text, reflecting the creative labor of both following the teaching materials and mastering the teaching materials, in order to direct the lively, vocal and colorful classroom teaching, mainly not the teacher's supplement and expansion of the text, but the explanation and elaboration of the text, which helps students to deepen their understanding of the key content and consolidate their memory. Such lectures, will be plump and round, not deadly board boring, reflecting the higher level of teaching art...
  Summary outline: after teaching, students digest, understand, consolidate what they have learned; Through review, tutoring, answering questions, discussion, deepen the learning, through questions, inspection, examination, scoring, check what has been learned; The teaching process is complete. Then, in order to improve teaching and teachers, it is necessary to do teaching summary. This summary, based on the existing teaching practice, but not the simple addition of past facts or the mechanical arrangement of advantages and disadvantages, it is the teaching links, all aspects of experience analysis and integration, the formation of a comprehensive theoretical understanding.The usual teaching outline has become an important basis and rich material for writing summary outline, and the summary outline is not only valuable literature of teaching itself, but also the embryo and prototype of writing historical papers...
  When you start writing a historical paper, you should also list the outline of the paper first. From the close combination of teaching summary, the important criterion of the choice of topics should be: What historical issues need to be summarized most? Which history teaching can best sum up the regularity of things? What is more meaningful to history? Under the conditions based on the summary outline, the final text can be comprehensive, partial, comprehensive, divided, and can be a topic (topic). After determining the subject, according to the overall thinking and rough structure of the final question, according to the past teaching outline, summary outline as the material, thoughtfully listed the outline of the paper. Now give two examples, take a look at the "text problem - outline - text question" this "big, small, divided, combined, received, put" pattern.

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