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questions :Wilhelm Ostwald
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[Visitor (112.0.*.*)]answers [Chinese ]Time :2023-02-06
Wilhelm Ostwald was born on 2 September 1853 in Riga, Livonia (then under the administration of the Russian Empire, now the capital of Latvia). As a teenager, Ostwald was sent to a literary secondary school with equal emphasis on natural science education and practical technology.

In January 1872, he entered the University of Dopat in Livonia (now known as the University of Tartu, Estonia).

After graduating from university in 1875, Ostwald stayed at the University of Dopat and trained in various physical analysis methods under the guidance of physicist Arthur van Ottingen, which laid the foundation for the research direction and method he has always adhered to: combining physical means and chemical analysis for scientific research.
He then became interested in the Danish physicist Julius Thomson 's hypothesis of comparing chemical affinities by measuring the heat emitted by the reaction. He wanted to compare the chemical affinity of matter by measuring the change in volume and refractive index in chemical processes, so he conducted a number of experiments and obtained his doctorate at the end of 1878 with a thesis on "Research in Volume Chemistry and Photochemistry". Osterwald's original research during this period led to his research work becoming valued by the scientific community.
He retired from the University of Leipzig in 1906 at the age of fifty-two. After retiring, he was a visiting professor at Harvard University and also engaged in research on color theory. Most of the time, however, he lived in seclusion in the small village of Grossberg near Leipzig, writing an autobiography.

In 1909 , Ostwald won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry " for " his work on catalytic action and chemical equilibrium and reactions, as well as the method of producing nitric acid from ammonia " , and immediately donated part of the prize money to the development of the Ido language. In his later years, Ostwald participated in a large number of international peace movements. He joined the movement to create an international language, began to learn Esperanto, and later supported the development of the Ido language.
After 1910, Ostwald also carried out color research, developed the measurement standard of pen holders to measure color, and proposed the Ostwald color system. In this system, he believes that all colors can be obtained by rotating the three components of "black" (B), "white" (W) and "solid color" (F) according to a certain area ratio, and W B F=100(%). Then he used a method similar to the three-phase phase diagram to place the solid color, black and white at the vertex of the regular triangle, forming an "equal color triangle", which made the whole system strictly orderly, and the color matching was extremely convenient...
From 1910 to 1912 Ostwald and Ernst Haeckel became representatives of the monist movement and served as president of the "Monist League". Later, he even hoped to establish an international society of scientists to increase exchanges between scholars from all over the world, but this wish was shattered by World War I. During World War I, his patents for nitric acid were used to make explosives, and many of the societies in which he was involved ceased to operate.

In 1927, he completed the book "Lifeline Autobiography", which has important historical value, summarizing his decades of research experience and academic activities.

On April 4, 1932, Ostwald died of uremia in Leipzig at the age of 78. He was buried there, with a monument to him in his birthplace.
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