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questions :Types of phospholipids
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[Visitor (43.250.*.*)]answers [Chinese ]Time :2023-03-22
1. According to the classification of phospholipid glycerol skeleton

Phospholipids can be divided into phosphoglycerides and sphingomyelins according to the different backbones of glycerol. They are both polar lipids. Polar lipids consist of polar parts (called polar heads) and non-polar parts (called non-polar tails). Among them, glycerophospholipids can be divided into phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), glycerol phosphatidylacid (PA) and so on according to the different polar head groups.

Glycerophospholipids can be divided into many types due to different substituents, among which the important ones are:

(1) Choline phosphatidic acid --→ phosphatidylcholine, also known as lecithin

(2) ethanolamine phosphatidic acid --→phosphatidylethanolamine, also known as brain phospholipids
(3) Serine phosphatidic acid -→ phosphatidylserine

(4) Glycerol phosphatidic acid --→ phosphatidylglycerol

(5) Inositol phosphatidic acid -→ phosphatidylinositol

(6) Cardiolipin is composed of C1 and C3 of glycerol combined with two molecules of phosphatidic acid, which is an important component of the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial membrane, and is the only antigenic phospholipid molecule.

(7) In addition to the above 6 kinds, the fatty acyl group of the first position of glycerol in the glycerol phospholipid molecule is replaced by long-chain alcohol to form ether, such as plasmalogen and platelet activating factor (PAF), which belong to glycerophospholipids.

Sphingolipids, the composition is characterized by no glycerol and sphingosine-containing can be divided into two types according to the different substituent group X:

(1) X is phosphocholine, called sphingomyelin

(2) X is a glycan group, called sphingolipid
2. According to the classification of amino acids

According to the different amino alcohols, it can be divided into the following categories:

(1) Phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) (PC), HO-CH2CH2N (CH3)3 (choline), distribution: soybean and other plants and animals brain, semen, adrenal glands, red blood cells, egg yolk (8-10%). Function: Control liver lipid metabolism and prevent the formation of fatty liver.

(2) Phosphatidylethanolamine (brain phospholipid) (PE), HO-CH2CH2-N H3 (ethanolamine), involved in blood clotting.

(3) Phosphatidylserine (PS), HO-CH2CH-COO- (serine), N H3, Note: (1)-(3)X are amino alcohols.

(4) Phosphatidylinositol (PI)

(5) Phosphatidylglycerol (PG)

(6) Diphosphatidylglycerol (cardiolipin)

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