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questions :History of the French Constitution
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[Visitor (113.218.*.*)]answers [Chinese ]Time :2024-04-04
From the bourgeois revolution of 1789 to the promulgation of the constitution in 1875, it was a period of extreme instability and alternating evolution of the French political system.

In the 86 years from 1789 to 1875, 12 constitutions were produced in modern France, which were replaced on average about once every seven years. The frequent changes of the French constitution have caused complex changes in the form of government, which has experienced a constitutional monarchy, an imperial system, a democratic republic, a dictatorship, etc., and there have been three constitutional monarchies, two imperial systems and three republican forms of government.
In 1789, after the victory of the French Revolution, the constitutionalists, representing the financial bourgeoisie, compromised with the feudal lords and formulated the 1791 constitution, establishing a bourgeois constitutional monarchy. The monarchy established by the 1789 Constitution, although it had a compromise with the old powers, was not a feudal monarchy under the old system, but a bourgeois constitutional monarchy...
Due to the stubbornness of the French feudal forces, the irreconcilable contradictions between the French feudalism and the people, and the lack of a long-term basis for compromise between the old and new forces, the people of Paris launched a second uprising, overthrowing the rule of the constitutional monarchy that had existed for three years. The republic was established on September 22, 1792, and the struggle between the various classes and political forces was still sharp and complex, and the constitutional changes were still frequent, and it went through four periods: the Girondists, the Jacobins, the Thermidorian Party, the Directory, and the ruling government.
In 1793, the Jacobins, representatives of the radical bourgeoisie, brought the revolution to a climax with the 1793 Constitution. The constitution made the French form of government a republic, with the power of the National Assembly supreme. After the Thermidorian coup d'état of 1794, the ruling big bourgeoisie weakened the democratic content of the republic by formulating a three-year constitution of the republic, demanding that the entire people renounce their rights for the benefit of the big bourgeoisie. The Constitution of 1795 established a parliamentary system.
In 1799, Napoleon staged a coup d'état and established a ruling government, which formally retained the republican form of government but was in fact a military dictatorship. He completed the evolution from a republic to an imperial system and established a bourgeois monarchy by formulating and amending the constitution several times. The Constitution of 1804 clearly provided for the monarchy.

Napoleon Bonaparte
After the overthrow of Napoleon, the French political system experienced another alternating evolution of constitutional monarchy, republican, and imperial system. In 1814, the King James Charter was promulgated, which reaffirmed the separation of powers, but this time the constitutional monarchy was semi-feudal and semi-bourgeois. In 1815, the restored Bourbons enacted the Additional Laws to the Imperial Constitution, which sought to restore Napoleon's monarchy, but was overthrown by the July Revolution launched by the French people.
The Charter of the July Dynasty of 1830 re-established the bourgeois constitutional monarchy, limiting the power of the king, which came from the people, and the king held real power, but only the head of the executive, not the head of the legislative, and therefore could not repeal the law; the power of parliament was expanded and it had the power to initiate legislation; and the cabinet was accountable to parliament.
The July Dynasty was overthrown by the February Revolution in 1848 and established the Second French Republic, which re-established the republic through the 1848 Constitution. However, the second republic lasted only three years, and in December 1851, Louis Bonama staged a coup d'état, and in 1852 the constitution changed the republic to the imperial system, becoming the "Second Empire". In 1870, the Second Reich issued the Decree Fixing the Imperial Constitution, which, like the Additional Act to the Imperial Constitution of 1815, sought to introduce so-called "liberal" reforms by amending the constitution as a remedy before the collapse of the empire, but it was too late.

Constitutional content of the Third Republic
The Third Republic was established in 1870, but the question of whether it would be a republic or a monarchy was still unresolved. After five years of arduous struggle between the bourgeoisie and the masses and the royalists, in 1875 the parliament finally adopted the constitution of the Third Republic, which officially incorporated the word republic into the constitution and legally affirmed the republican form of government of the Third Republic.
After the promulgation of the 1875 constitution of the Third Republic, France became a typical parliamentary republic, and the 1875 constitution also became the longest-lived French constitution.The content of the political system stipulated in this constitution is as follows: the parliament is composed of two houses, the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies; the two houses share legislative power, but the bill on fiscal laws should first be sent to the Chamber of Deputies and voted on by it; the cabinet must gain the confidence of the Chamber of Deputies before it can govern, otherwise it must resign; the cabinet is an executive branch with great powers, and in addition to the power to propose legislation, it has the power to issue orders independently; because there are many political parties in France, it is very difficult to obtain a majority in the Chamber of Deputies, so such orders of the parliament on the cabinet cannot be revoked or changed, but the French cabinet does not dare to dissolve the parliament easily; the president is the head of state and is elected by the joint meeting of the Senate and the Chamber of DeputiesThe Constitution gives the President a wide range of powers and powers.Soon after the promulgation of the Constitution, however, the power of the President was in fact weakened and no longer played an important role in political life, and the power of the State was clearly transferred to the Cabinet, and the Constitution of 1875 made France a more typical parliamentary republic...
After the establishment of a republic in the Constitution of 1875, the controversy over the French form of government, which lasted for nearly a century, came to an end, but the republic itself went through a process of development from a parliamentary republic to a semi-presidential and semi-parliamentary republic.

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